A flow or leak of hydrocarbons slowly through porous material or small holes.
These compounds are what the seeps release into the atmosphere or ocean - molecules made up of just carbons and hydrogens. Some common examples are butane (used in lighters) and plastic which is made from hydrocarbon oils!
Pressure on the seabed caused by a liquid’s weight. This is the same pressure we feel when diving deep into a pool.
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, more so than CO2. It is often found near dairies and is the main hydrocarbon gas released from seeps.
Trophic levels are the level an organism occupies in a food web. Higher trophic levels contain predators, while the lowest trophic level is primary producers or autotrophs
The COP seep field is the largest studied seep field in the world. It is located in the Santa Barbara Channel near UCSB.
Chemosynthesis is similar to photosynthesis, however, no sunlight is needed to create energy. Instead of sunlight, chemosynthetic organisms are able to convert seep materials
Hydrogen sulfide is a neurotoxin with the smell of rotten eggs.If not properly handled, it can cause life-threatening health problems. Sewage and manure handling operations are well-known sources of this gas.
Bubble plumes are large trails of bubbles produced by seeps as hydrocarbon gasses are released from the source into surrounding water. These affect surrounding marine biology.
Tarballs are clumps of weathered oil that wash up on the beach. They are hard and contain less volatile chemicals than oil does.
These chemicals evaporate in room temperature and float around in the air. Seeps release some volatile chemicals that can be dangerous to human health.
Primary productivity is the process of converting carbon (CO2/hydrocarbons) into nutrients performed by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms